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        1. ڵλ: Ƶ >  > ͼ˵ >
          °±ܹͼ
               2019-05-20 09:49:51     ֻ    ҪͶ     űн

          °ܹͼ±ܹͼ,2019±ܹͼ°,¾ܹͼ,±ܹͼ,°ܹͼͼͼ±ܹ,°±ܹһA,һܹ̳,±ܹͼ,±ܹͼԶ,

          1785꣬ǰϦߴʦ÷˹÷յֻܱʳӡ˿̼άҲɱתѰΰ裬ʱ̡

          ÷˹÷ڿ˹̹ĵһƶͥλԱĸλŮǣ˲иŬȡ˳ɹ32ʱ֣άҲõҽѧѧλ䲩ʿġǵӰ졷˵dzϮţٵһλţٵġ֮Լ֮ij硣߸һָڲһֲмҺҺܹӦΪǽǼ÷˹÷˵ȡġǷڵ״ͬѧ٤ܼⷴ죬ڴڡ÷˹÷ܴʾϸҺȷΪڴڵһ֡һֿġһ裬ͻ÷˹÷ΣֻҪû߽˯״ǿ׳ĴͨذָԭȻ״߾ָܻɴ˿һʱĴƷ

          ÷˹÷

          ǰʷѧҺն˵˶18͵IJƷô18Ͳ˶IJƷΪǰ17ͬźͰȻʢУרҵʿҲѧҸ³ΡһӡѧҺնط֡ռӪDZ鼰ԤʾֻȻ׼ǹ켣֤ͬţٵɡŲδһҹ֮ʧ

          ֮ͬǰķȻʿпѧڿѧ֮ʣѧαѧķҰвȻܶڶг績ŮڴǰỳУΪл̥лӣýԼԶĹܹ޷عͨ­ԼЭر̳Ϊһ˵ij֪ԷﵽǶǰʷѧ޲ءڡ뷨˶ᡷĿƪԣ¬ǰУԼۡܻӭΪʱİ裬ԿѧѹյİãרҵĿѧʿҵѧҺһҲ׷ڱֽ־ϲʱʢеĸ֡ѧ

          רҵѧʿߣƿֲ˯˹ӡľ쵽ֲ΢µľпСˣΪС˻񣡣ȻùϳһһģΪ˹ά͵ѿзյ֮ţ͡ʾ¼ʲ񸸽˵ϫΪЭۿڡΪʦѧáŵʾУһνġСͨ磬δʹ屻ߣһ𻨡Цǣ˹֣ʱҽѧרҽ˵ѻƬιܰϢ˵ΪѻƬԲΣ˶ʱܹ񾭡ɼʿ˹ƾֱΡʯĴڣ18͵רҵʿԿѧΪʵþ֮۲ѯʡ

          ͬҵѧҵ飬һ㳣ʶ׼ζ⡣绯ѧ˹ŵ˾ͳศԼȡÿѧȤζСӡʱһλۼ˹棬ȫļУʱİĸŮϴּУԼǵѧ̳ϣֻ顢ȼ塢˫սһݿѧҲָԴӶԿѧȺ֮䴫↑ѷȺæȻʷͻѧǷDzֻػǰȷʵǵ֡Ⱥڶѵγ֮ͣǰ飬ȳػӭȫǴ˼Ķ˼״Ǯ˼ﶼҵʺЩÿѧҮغΪˮߵЬҹӾȡѧ־ʣһӡ

          ֻѧʿͿѧˣѧҲʱо֮ۡάΪȻ֮һ٣С죬˵Ը֪ʥ⡣ũ߶ŰŹһͷ޴Ķ档ŰǶŶѡԼԼһλ˸ҶԱ鼰Ϊѧ˼룬ĩ١յȫ鱾ֻţٺԼġԼԳơѧţ١Ϊġȫ϶ţٺĽ˵ɡʹʺ;ʾһ˶ϵΪڶгǣǰؾ˶ʵʩһּôͽͨһλ˼ŷԭϵΨߣıλŷԳƽýѹʵĸֺͽѷйͨһѸı˳

          ھй㷺׵ĿѧſĸȾ£֮ı߽类ɱԴſѹǶʱֵĿѧ顪衪ģʫҲ顣ѧԺɳǺ۴һʢԼͬΪһĵ˶ˣ÷˹÷⵽һأһʱͽ鼰Ұ硱ֲ֧ȫ÷˹÷ԼҲһԾΪֿȵ

          ÷˹÷ĴضһЩ֢ȷʵЧ˵󶼻÷˹÷ֻijλʱȻΣʣʧʹޡһԭʹ硢鴤ľʧߵȲ֢㶼ζҲĿ߻룬ڲʱɫ˿֯۵Ĵʦڷ䡢ռǽΡĻIJ£ߵġСԶйͨȻҽҽΰ취ڽտҳ㷹޷պ˼ѧõӪպͰʾַʱIJ£ȴϲķݵͨѧڶഫġ似ʿŮΪ֮ſ

          ÷˹÷Ĵ

          Ϊڹ÷˹÷ľٸż硱ŻѸߴ100·ףֻҪ;޼ֲŸɽ롣⣬ҽεĸͰҪҲƣԤÿ100·ףһΪƶ񱣴棨ٱãˣǰ֮ȻϢɹͷԣ÷˹÷˳ֻþҮԿΪƷܹΰٲġȻƷȽϣԷѪ֫ΪĴͳҽַıƺʽѧԺ󱻻ؾҪڷҽʦһһ⵽ҪЮİҽѧҪװŪijªȦס

          ΪͣϢ飬¼һѯίԱᡣίԱλҽѧҽʦɴ˿ɼҵԣλѧԺԺʿѧѧҰѧһ͢ͷ̨Ĵߣ͵פʹĸ֡ίԱŴʵز顣ԢĻ԰ڣһλĻߴǰһʩɹһǰε޶żڼз屭ˮȵıʱ߷ʵʩǵ屭ߣίԱ֪ͨһλŮߣһʵʩʵûУɹһŻ߾ͳȫ֢״ݴˣίԱ1784ijʱڲ÷˹÷ƵĶԣЧ˼ʾһɰҽѧɵIJѯίԱᶨҲƣڴسЧʵݡ

          ÷˹÷Ĵۣгܵİɫ˶Ŀѧҿһѧ׶֮ءʵϣһ۲ǿѨ磬⵽ʱѧֵӰ졣÷˹÷Ϊ͸ȫҺǰԣڡ̫ΪDzлǿպţٵķ֣һΪ弲ΪҺʩĦġ㡱ٿزǿҺЧɴܹսʤָȻĵ͡ǵ¹߲īۡ˵Ȼ÷˹÷ҽΰ취ڿĵ޻ǴʱĿѧչ֡εҺ塱ر˼顣ٴȼ˵Ʈ졣ţ١Ȼѧѧԭȷʵᵽ͸ȫ֮Сġᡢŷ˹ҲһЩǷǵĸͼ˵÷˹÷Һ򡰶˵޶¡

          ֵעǣͳҽѧΪΪԪȱʧ÷˹÷ȴԶ̬ĻõĽ̿ijֹͣ״ӰҲֹ򲿷ֵ٣Ӱȫ塣˵ģǾġ÷˹÷Ĺ⵽ΪͳѧʿޣΪ˼취ѧ˵ӽ塪Ȼ͵ȫۡѧǾ΢顣ܹҳÿһƷ÷˹÷Ĵȴ޷Ҳʱ÷˹÷ѧͷаҪԭ-׵ǿ˵ľʵۡ˵ĹȻ͹ʵΥȻһ˵Ĺ˴ȼ˵ʹһֶӲڣԲŻ󵼿ѧǧꡣȷбҪһһӦӳ͹ʵ߼Ϳѧĸס

          ͬΪѧԺԺʿֶĹȴͬιʹģĺ̶ܴȴȡ໥ϵƿвöɵƿԼߵȹɵϵκһԪض޷ɵϵ͹۴ڣδǶԵʵ塪ԭ˵ij磬ָӺ͸ӣ˵ijһ磬һ硣ȫ۵ĿѧۣҲǸΪ֮߳19ͳѧԺӦ෽ѯóƷϸͰ״βѯίԱĶۣԲֲ֢ʹ֢ڷʧȣЧȻӦ˸ֵ֪Ƽ

          ţڴӿѧαѧĹ׵ķλһ漫رɾһֳԴԴͣİ塣÷˹÷ij˹ϷչġۡۡġҽʦΪҽʦļԶԶǵɱȻɷЧȻõĵ͡һ1780ڣнķڻؾϺҶ壬֮Ը˵˼ʳסԽԵĺͷϿѧİ塣ɴ𲽴ɾΪµ

          ɴ˿ɼԼһʢеִаɫۣ­ѧܹ֮ڱ־廨ŵġѧֺͷֻΪ÷˹÷һ;ðȶҸŸɵͽ׷ߣǸֲ̬еԴԴͣİ崫ͳʱ±֡ӹԣǧȻ಻󣬵Ϊֹδܳ׽ҿϵıʡ÷˹÷Ķ˵ܲ⣬ǣǸļ϶Ƿij/ܣʧ֮ƫġ18͵Ŀѧƺ룩޷֤κδڣҲ÷˹÷Ϊɥľиڴˣͽһӵ˵19͵ѧȴַ硣ǰʷڿ࣬Ҳǿѧʷչǵľ

          ߶­ѧȻƣպȴǶԴԻܷͬ÷˹÷˵ĸϣҽѧ羭徭ֺ̽һϵе·֣Էȷں̶ܴϣ÷˹÷Ķ˵ܹһѧֵ1.0𡪡ΪϽڽ̬ʱӦдųұҲ⵽ЧҽѧϵĴƷǾӰκûߡȻ羿ܷĴԼʲô²ŸɶԱ˷ЧӦȵȣҪȡڴųݶȵѧǹһ̽νضԶ

          ǡƿڡѧµĽṹԣ1920͵Ŀѧ£ǻ᲻ԾذѸռţٵѧйͳ⵽һ˼ʽӰ죬ҲܼΪʶ龳¹ͳȱǰʷ֮˽ϧбҪǵȻո˺˶ŷֱ19ǰȺ̬һȽŵĸı䡪ڴ֮ǰаɫĻͳȻȺ˼зҪЧմ˶Ī˹ơӰģ䳤ʮĻʱһ˶žȫ塣ΪȻԶڰĽѷдŻع˴ܶĽһ˶ԼΨۣлܿӢȫ1844꣬˹ƾ칦ܣܹʩ߶Իһʱھۼʱ簮ĬյȽԲֹһεᡰᡱƤ˹ͳ˼лʵԣֿϷҲŴڰ׹ƹܽᣨֿżȻҲ룩䶦ʢʱڣ˵ͽ200ýˣνʢǰڸ˹õڹƭٺкܶڱֳġ̲˲ʤꡣ

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          γһԭҪϱս֮ǰĽ̻Ըǵķū˶ӶԸŮȨҲػͽе⣩ǿҲתѰµijһ˶ԣлȵIJԼġȻܣ棩һΪѹ˹ͨʱĽƷ󣬰оԵġȱοѧӽǰʷ䣬һ౾ۺľ󣩡20ͳҴά˹˵ʱĴ󲿷˶ԣлһΰ׳Ŀţͨں͹DZ鼰á

          ˼ţѧȻ˼ͳǸõԽʯ­ѧԼлĿѧǰ߿ҽΣ߿ѻܹеľݣȻҲŷ19ڵҺڼı֮УЩı䴥Ρ;档ÿ춼µĿѧ֤౾̲ž޴DZܣ֮ڣΨ۸ſѧķչҲʱ1844꣬Ī˹ĵ籨Ͱ׷ġ4󣬸˹ʹõ籨ûĽ࣬조Ӧл1880ڣƣýϱĵӫͷǹǡ1895ߡxΨ߸Ϊ֮ϲǡͨɴˣ°Ľʷǰø߳˼ѧղķ˹Լڹоڴڡڽ֮̾֡1902˵ҽܹȫͼ֪ͨңǵʱʶеĹʽܶɸ֪һ˸̵ܹڽᡣ

          ѧԽԽרҵѧԡӲݡĿظҪԼ־֤αɣʹʶѧȻȻʷȡóɹȻľδǡѧҲȻľһΪķСšԡ˹⣺ȻİȷʵܹѣĪDzЩ֮ſѧ̽Ķ𣿴ղķ˹ڽᣬѧԱֹڣЩ˶Կѧɺż18ĿѧԲδŵıԴһµİţ֮һȻľȻ顪һȻijȻ塱ķִֺһҲǰлͣƵĵԭ

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